What to Know About Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed) Use
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Synthetic cannabinoids, also called synthetic marijuana or fake weed, have been used by many as an alternative to marijuana since products were first introduced in 2002. Despite the fact that these man-made products were created in laboratories to help scientists study the cannabinoid system in the human brain, they often claim to be made of “natural” material from a variety of plants.
Hundreds of synthetic cannabinoids exist and the effects can be unpredictable and even life-threatening.
Also Known As: There are countless fake weed products being sold as herbal smoking blends, legal bud, herbal smoke, marijuana alternatives, fake weed, or herbal buds. This makes it difficult for parents and other adults to identify them. Some of the brand names include Blaze, Blueberry Haze, Dank, Demon Passion Smoke, Genie, Hawaiian Hybrid, K2, Magma, Ninja, Nitro, Ono Budz, Panama Red Ball, Puff, Sativah Herbal Smoke, Skunk, Spice, Ultra Chronic, and Voodoo Spice.
Drug Class: Synthetic marijuana products are classified as new psychoactive substances (NPS), or unregulated mind-altering substances intended to produce the same effects as illegal drugs.
Common Side Effects: Side effects of the drug include elevated mood, relaxation, altered perception, symptoms of psychosis, extreme anxiety, confusion, paranoia, hallucinations, violent behavior, suicidal thoughts, rapid heart rate, raised blood pressure, vomiting, kidney damage, and seizures.
How to Recognize Fake Weed
Synthetic marijuana often contains a mixture of dried leaves from traditional herbal plants. They are various colors, including green, brown, blonde, and red, and often sold in small packets approximately two by three inches. The packets are often colorful foil packs or plastic zip bags. Some online sellers of legal fake weed products do so with disclaimers like “not for human consumption.”
What Does Synthetic Marijuana Do?
Fake weed works on the same brain cell receptors as THC or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana that gets you high). It is typically smoked, brewed in tea, or vaped. Many of these products are legally marketed as “herbal incense” or “potpourri”.
Some people who use herbal buds say that it produces a high similar to that of marijuana, but it doesn’t last as long. Others experience a relaxed feeling, rather than the “head high” that real marijuana produces. Also of note is the “harsh” taste, which people say “makes your throat burn and your lungs ache” long after you smoke.
Since there are no standards for making, packaging, or selling synthetic weed, it’s impossible to know the type and amount of chemicals in each product as well as what the fake weed will do to you.
What the Experts Say
Although they are often marketed as “100% organic herbs,” none of the fake weed products on the market are completely natural. They have all been found to contain various synthetic cannabinoids, or chemicals produced in laboratories.
Originally, fake marijuana products contained a chemical called HU-210, which has a molecular structure very similar to THC. Because HU-210 is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, these fake weed products were manufactured and sold only in Europe.
Since then, new synthetic cannabinoid agonists have been created. They are too numerous to list. Some are similar in structure to THC; others are not. Some are classified as controlled substances. By using different synthetic marijuana mixtures, manufacturers are able to continue to legally market their products in the United States when another formulation becomes illegal.
According to the DEA, the majority of these chemical compounds are produced in Asia with no regulations or standards. They are then smuggled into the United States where they are sprinkled onto “plant material,” packaged and ultimately sold in tobacco shops, convenience stores, and the like.
Some of these chemicals are still legal. However, since synthetic marijuana first hit the market, more than 20 of these compounds have become controlled in some way at the federal level. At the same time, they noted that more than 75 additional compounds have been identified but are not currently controlled.
In 2015, the DEA listed 15 varieties of synthetic marijuana as Schedule I controlled substances in the Drugs of Abuse resource guide. This places them in the same federal category as heroin, crack cocaine, and marijuana.
Many people buy into the idea that fake marijuana products are safe since the chemicals are “legal” and contain “natural” ingredients. However, this has proven to be false with multiple cases of severe, unexplained bleeding or bruising, and some deaths. Other reports show an increase in emergency room visits due to rapid heart rate, vomiting, violent behavior, suicidal thoughts, kidney damage, and seizures.
Some of the fake marijuana products sold commercially claim to contain herbs traditionally used for medicinal purposes, including:
- Beach bean (Canavalia maritima)
- Blue Egyptian water lily (nymphaea caerulea)
- Dwarf skullcap (scutellaria nana)
- Indian warrior (pedicularis densiflora)
- Lion’s tail (leonotis leonurus)
- Indian lotus (nelumbo nucifera)
- Honeyweed (leonurus sibiricus)
However, one study revealed that some of the herbal ingredients listed by the manufacturers could not be found in the products.
Beyond the synthetic cannibinoid HU-210, which is used by scientists to identify cannibinoid receptors in the brain and study the effects Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC), there are no approved or off-label medical uses for synthetic marijuana.
Common Side Effects
While research is advancing, the effect synthetic marijuana products may have on the human body is largely unknown. To date, few studies have been published testing the effects of the chemicals on users. Within the DEA report, they note overdoses that have caused fatal heart attacks. Similarly, acute kidney injury resulting in hospitalization and dialysis have been connected to these synthetics.
One study compared the level of impairment for drivers who were arrested for intoxicated driving. One group had smoked synthetic cannabinoids and those in the other group were high on marijuana. The study found a significant increase in confusion, disorientation, and incoherence in the synthetic marijuana group. Slurred speech, a side effect not normally associated with natural cannabis use, was also reported among the synthetic cannabinoid users.
Beyond the short-term effects mentioned, an increase in blood pressure, as well as seizures, tremors, and anxiety, have been noted in synthetic marijuana users.
Whether these observed symptoms will have lasting effects, particularly on adolescents and young adult users, is not yet known. Of course, smoking any substance could have negative effects on the lungs.
“The problem with JWH-018 (a synthetic cannabinoid compound) is that absolutely nothing is known regarding its toxicity or metabolites,” says John Huffman, who helped develop the JWH-018 chemical. “Therefore, it is potentially dangerous and should not be used.” JWH-018 is also known as 1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthyl) indole and is one of the Schedule I controlled substances listed with the DEA.
Recently, a version of synthetic marijuana was laced with rat poison, causing uncontrolled bleeding in hundreds of people and killing several others who ingested the tainted products.
If you or a loved one has used synthetic marijuana and begin experiencing severe, unexplained bleeding or bruising, call 911 or asked a loved one to take you to the hospital immediately. These are all signs of contaminated cannabinoid products.
Signs of Use
If you are a parent of a young adult, it pays to know the behaviors and physical effects of using fake weed. While exhibiting one or two of these signs might not mean that your child is using, they are all strong indicators of drug use and should be taken seriously.
- Burning incense
- Buying or using eye drops
- Possessing dried plants or herbs
- Having rolling papers or vape pens
- Receiving suspicious packages in the mail
- Displaying unusual or secretive behaviors
- Red or irritated eyes
- Pale complexion
- Acting confused
Myths and Common Questions
Perhaps one of the biggest misconceptions about herbal bud is that it is “natural marijuana.” It is not; it is created from any of several hundred man-made synthetic chemicals that are sprayed onto the chopped plant material.
Synthetic marijuana is also far more potent, containing TCH analogs or synthetic cannabinoids that can be up to 600 times more potent than THC found in marijuana. Often, additives, toxic impurities, and other types of drugs are also found in fake weed products.
Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawal
Regularly using “fake weed” can result in increased tolerance, or needing more and more of the drug to experience the same high. If you regularly use synthetic cannabinoids, you can also become both physically and psychologically dependent. This means if you stop abruptly, you’ll likely experience withdrawal symptoms.
Since the chemical composition of fake weed is unknown and can change from batch to batch, tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal may also vary.
How Long Does Fake Weed Stay in Your System?
How long synthetic cannabinoids stay in your system depends on several factors, including the type, how it is administered (i.e., inhaled or ingested), amount consumed, and frequency of use. Since these synthetic drugs don’t trigger a positive result on most standard urine drug tests , many people turn to these drugs in an attempt to avoid positive drug screens for employment, rehab, or legal reasons.
Long-term, regular use of synthetic cannabinoids can lead to addiction. If you have a history of mental illness or a substance use disorder, the risk of addiction is even greater.
In addition to building up a tolerance and experiencing symptoms of withdrawal, other signs of synthetic cannabinoid addiction can include:
- You use more than intended, even after telling yourself that you’ll only “take a few hits.”
- You are unable to cut down or stop and have likely failed numerous times at quitting.
- You spend lots of time getting high, often at the expense of spending time with loved ones or doing activities you once enjoyed.
- You continue to use despite any problems with family and friends, employment, or legal troubles.
- You depend on the drug to “relax” or for creativity.
Symptoms of synthetic weed withdrawal can range from mild to severe, depending on how frequent and how long you have been using, and include the following:
- Severe anxiety
How to Get Help
If you suspect that someone you love is using synthetic marijuana, the most important thing you can do is spend time with them, communicate the dangers of fake weed, and watch for any signs of use. While behavioral therapies and medications have yet to be specifically tested for the treatment of synthetic cannabinoid addiction, a health care professional can work with you and your loved one to safely detox from the drug as well as identify and treat any co-occurring mental illness.
In addition to getting a recommendation from a trusted health care professional, the Partnership at DrugFree.org has a helpline and tips so families know what to ask when vetting a rehab.
If you or a loved one are struggling with substance use or addiction, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area.
For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database.
Learn what experts have to say about synthetic marijuana or "fake weed" as well as common side effects, myths, signs of use, and risk for addiction.
Synthetic Weed. What is it and which are its effects?
Synthetic weed has made headlines around the world because of the devastation it has caused in several countries. This new drug has spread like wildfire around the world, causing a number of deaths, heart attacks, strokes, etc.
The false safety feeling that we feel by calling that substance synthetic cannabis is responsible for the dangers associated with it. But it is not like that, this substance is not cannabis, it is not fun and it is not medicinal, however its consumption can take you to the hospital or even worse, it is for these reasons that we decided to create this post.
🎯 Synthetic marijuana: what is it really?
They are dry plants impregnated with ethanol or acetone containing the compound that mimics the THC molecule, and they come in zip packaging with different trade names. It is called synthetic weed or fake cannabis but it really has little to do with the natural product.
Image of the grass they call synthetic cannabis*
What does synthetic weed smell like?
It can have fruity aromas, reminiscent of strawberries or melons among others, but already in the smell you can tell that it is not typical of good cannabis. They probably use artificial terpenes to make it look like dried buds, but it happens like with other artificial products, you can tell it’s not natural.
🔥 What is synthetic weed made from?
Liquid synthetic weed is produced in a laboratory, as well as many other new substances that emulate forbidden drugs, and are known as “Research Chemicals“. Cannabinoids are synthesized and then dissolved in acetone or ethanol. This liquid is then used to produce a synthetic weed spray that they use to spray dried leaves from other plants.
Who makes synthetic weed?
A few years ago most of the laboratories producing synthetic drugs were in the UK and USA. Nowadays most of these compounds come from China and other parts of Asia, although Russia is also a producer.
Being THC-like molecules, it activates cannabinoid receptors, but the effects are not the same as those of regular cannabis. Synthetic weed is actually thought to act more powerfully on these receptors in the human body, but there have really been too few studies on this subject to draw any conclusive results.
Some claim that synthetic cannabinoids are between 2 and 100 times more poweful than natural ones. This answers why there have been so many cases of severe intoxication, ending up in hospital emergency.
What are the symptoms of smoking synthetic weed?
- Accelerated heart rate
- Changes in reality perception
- Mental block
The point is that the effect is not pleasant, no creativity, motivation or happiness as cannabis can cause in its natural state. It’s like sniffing glue and waiting for the effects of magic mushrooms, something pointless.
🧐 Side effects
- Suicidal thoughts
- Violent behaviour
⚠️ How long does Synthetic Weed stay in your system?
It seems that synthetic cannabinoids adhere stronger to the CB1 and CB2 receptors, and this may cause them to remain in our bodies longer. Unfortunately it is difficult to predict the exact time because the composition of commercial synthetic weed packs can vary greatly from one brand to another.
Does Synthetic Weed show up in a drug test ?
The answer is yes, synthetic weed can be detected in urine, saliva and blood, just like regular cannabis. If you are in a profession where you get blood tests, you are sure to test positive, just like if you are an athlete it would appear in the anti-doping test.
📱 Is it legal?
It is not legal, but for many years it has been possible to sell it freely because the manufacturers were constantly changing the molecules they were banning. By slightly modifying the chemical composition they managed to avoid the laws and keep up with sales. This led to the creation of many different synthetic cannabinoids, with different strengths, but all of them with similar effects.
🚀 Names of Types of Synthetic Weed
The trade name given to this product is often attractive, and in some cases it can even be confused with the name of some cannabis varieties.
- Black Mamba
Image of a K2 package of synthetic weed*
Synthetic cannabinoids were created for research and there are legal drugs that contain them. The problem with synthetic weed is that three or more different compounds are often mixed together in the same product, without knowing the reaction that may cause this union.
Another danger is that it does not undergo any type of health control, and may contain elements that are harmful to health. Laboratories where they are produced are clandestine, so they can’t have inspections or anything.
“Products not suitable for human consumption“, that’s what it says on the packaging and it’s true, although we all know what we think… The problem is that they haven’t been tested before, neither with animals nor with humans, and the reactions can be multiple.
⛳ Can you overdose?
Many people wonder if you can really be killed by synthetic weed and the answer is definitely yes, and you wouldn’t be the first person. Only in the USA there have been hundreds of cases of overdose from fake weed, many of them ending in death. As we said, it is a combination of cannabinoids synthesized in a clandestine laboratory and mixed with other substances, in some cases Mephedrone, Piperazines or Methamphetamine.
There have been cases of multiple poisonings in a particular geographical area in a short period of time, finding in many cases a common synthetic cannabinoid. As in Russia in 2014, there were more than 600 hospital emergencies for this reason during 2 weeks, 15 of which ended in death. In 2016 something similar happened in New York and other areas of the USA, it caused a lot of international impact because it was called “Zombie Burst“.
Deaths caused by synthetic weed are numbered in hundreds, we are talking about a dangerous product, so be very careful with its use. At Pevgrow we recommend self growing cannabis in its natural state, first of all because it is much better than any artificial product, and secondly so as not to be dependent on others. If you liked this article consider sharing it, it’s the best way to spread the word.
Avez-vous entendu parler du cannabis artificie? Comment il est fabriqué et quels sont ses dangers? Ici, tous les secrets du cannabis synthétique.