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The best season to visit the lava tubes Flagstaff has to offer is during the summer. The cave is open all year round but the service roads to get to them (Forest Roads 245 and/or 171) are closed during the winter. Feel free to ski or snow shoe to the cave if you desire a winter visit.

There is also camping around the area but please remember to have your camp site at least a mile away from the cave entrance. The camping etiquette around the area includes picking up all trash, not feeding the wildlife (there are cows that wander the area but are scared of humans), and most importantly no defacing the cave walls. There have been many cases of graffiti in the cave and although they have been removed since, it is obviously respectful to leave the area how it was when you first set foot on it. Camp Colton does educational school programs in the cave and the experience is a rite of passage and an awesome adventure to all Flagstaff sixth graders. Location: 14 miles north of Flagstaff on paved highways and graveled Forest Roads and a travel time of 45 minutes. Directions: Drive 9 miles north of Flagstaff on US 180 and turn west (left) on FR 245 (at milepost 230). Continue 3 miles to FR171 and turn south 1 mile to where FR 171B turns left a short distance to Lava River Cave. For more information please contact Flagstaff Ranger District at 928-526-0866. We have a few Flagstaff vacation recommendations as things begin to open back up. When you are in Flagstaff: 1 Regardless of your personal or political beliefs, still wash your hands and practice social distancing.

3) Choose lodging where management has taken strict measures to keep you safe. 4) Choose tours and activities that allow you to practice safe social distancing. 5) As always, be respectful of the environment and each other. Dispose of your trash properly, obey fire restriction laws, and respect your fellow humans. As we try to reopen Flagstaff, please remember that caution still needs to be exercised in order to keep Flagstaff open. Let's all do our part to get America back up on its feet and stay standing. We rely on each other to this - so stay healthy, and keep others healthy. Theoretical study suggests huge lava tubes could exist on moon. Lava tubes large enough to house cities could be structurally stable on the moon, according to a theoretical study presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference on Tuesday (March 17). The volcanic features are an important target for future human space exploration because they could provide shelter from cosmic radiation, meteorite impacts and temperature extremes. Lava tubes are tunnels formed from the lava flow of volcanic eruptions. The edges of the lava cool as it flows to form a pipe-like crust around the flowing river of lava. When the eruption ends and the lava flow stops, the pipe drains leave behind a hollow tunnel, said Jay Melosh, a Purdue University distinguished professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences who is involved in the research. "There has been some discussion of whether lava tubes might exist on the moon," he said. "Some evidence, like the sinuous rilles observed on the surface, suggest that if lunar lava tubes exist they might be really big." Sinuous rilles are large channels visible on the lunar surface thought to be formed by lava flows. The sinuous rilles range in size up to 10 kilometers wide, and the Purdue team explored whether lava tubes of the same scale could exist. David Blair, a graduate student in Purdue's Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, led the study that examined whether empty lava tubes more than 1 kilometer wide could remain structurally stable on the moon. "We found that if lunar lava tubes existed with a strong arched shape like those on Earth, they would be stable at sizes up to 5,000 meters, or several miles wide, on the moon," Blair said. "This wouldn't be possible on Earth, but gravity is much lower on the moon and lunar rock doesn't have to withstand the same weathering and erosion. In theory, huge lava tubes - big enough to easily house a city - could be structurally sound on the moon." Blair worked with Antonio Bobet, a Purdue professor of civil engineering, and applied known information about lunar rock and the moon's environment to civil engineering technology used to design tunnels on Earth. The team found that a lava tube's stability depended on the width, roof thickness and the stress state of the cooled lava, and the team modeled a range of these variables. The researchers also modeled lava tubes with walls created by lava placed in one thick layer and with lava placed in many thin layers, Blair said. Only one other study, published in 1969, has attempted to model lunar lava tubes, he said.

Vape pens are the perfect way to discreetly smoke while on the go. With the rising popularity of vape pens, manufacturers like APX, Pax, and KandyPens have begun making them in a variety of styles and sizes, all with different features and purposes. The sheer volume of vaporizer batteries on the market today can make finding the right 510-threaded battery overwhelming. With the explosion of pre-filled vape cartridges, it’s important to use the correct one, or you could ruin your cartridge. In this extensive vape battery guide, we’ll tell you everything you need to know about cartridge batteries. Even if you’re a newcomer to the world of oil vapes, you’ll know exactly which kind of vape pen battery that works best for your vape. The Kind Pen 510 Threaded AutoDraw Battery is the perfect cartridge battery. This battery is slim and discreet and great for vaping on the go. The oil, the battery, and the cartridge, which is also known as an atomizer. The vape pen battery provides the correct amount of power to vaporize oil inside the cartridge.

It’s important to make sure that the battery is not too powerful for your vape. This mistake could burn out the cartridge and make it unusable. Chances are that you already have a disposable pre-filled vape cartridge, and are just looking for a battery to use. With that out of the way, let’s dive into which battery you need.

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