Non-tobacco plant identified in ancient pipe for first time
By Will Ferguson, WSU News
PULLMAN, Wash.—People in what is now Washington State were smoking Rhus glabra, a plant commonly known as smooth sumac, more than 1,400 years ago.
The discovery, made by a team of Washington State University researchers, marks the first-time scientists have identified residue from a non-tobacco plant in an archeological pipe.
Unearthed in central Washington, the Native American pipe also contained residue from N. quadrivalvis, a species of tobacco not currently grown in the region but that is thought to have been widely cultivated in the past. Until now, the use of specific smoking plant mixtures by ancient people in the American Northwest had only been speculated about.
“Smoking often played a religious or ceremonial role for Native American tribes and our research shows these specific plants were important to these communities in the past,” said Korey Brownstein, a former WSU Ph.D. student now at the University of Chicago and lead author of a study on the research in the journal Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. “We think the Rhus glabra may have been mixed with tobacco for its medicinal qualities and to improve the flavor of smoke.”
The discovery was made possible by a new metabolomics-based analysis method that can detect thousands of plant compounds or metabolites in residue collected from pipes, bowls and other archeological artifacts. The compounds can then be used to identify which plants were smoked or consumed.
“Not only does it tell you, yes, you found the plant you’re interested in, but it also can tell you what else was being smoked,” said David Gang, a professor in WSU’s Institute of Biological Chemistry and a co-author of the study. “It wouldn’t be hyperbole to say that this technology represents a new frontier in archaeo-chemistry.”
Previously, the identification of ancient plant residues relied on the detection of a limited number of biomarkers, such as nicotine, anabasine, cotinine and caffeine. Gang said the issue with this approach is while the presence of a biomarker like nicotine shows tobacco was smoked it doesn’t distinguish which species it was.
“Also, if you are only looking for a few specific biomarkers, you aren’t going to be able to tell what else was consumed in the artifact,” Gang said.
In addition to identifying the first non-tobacco plant smoked in an archaeological pipe, the WSU researchers’ work also helps elucidate the complex evolution of tobacco trade in the American Northwest.
Shannon Tushingham and David Gang
Analysis of a second pipe that was used by people living in Central Washington after Euro-American contact revealed the presence of a different tobacco species, N. rustica, which was grown by native peoples on the east coast of what is now the United States.
“Our findings show Native American communities interacted widely with one another within and between ecological regions, including the trade of tobacco seeds and materials,” said Shannon Tushingham, an assistant professor of anthropology at WSU and co-author of the study. “The research also casts doubt on the commonly held view that trade tobacco grown by Europeans overtook the use of natively-grown smoke plants after Euro-American contact.”
Moving forward, the WSU researchers’ work could ultimately help scientists studying ancient societies in the Americas and elsewhere around the globe identify which plant species ancient people were consuming, providing important information about the evolution of drug use and similar plant-human dynamics.
Dr. Korey Brownstein with Native American students planting indigenous tobacco species at Washington State University.
Closer to home, the WSU team is also putting their work to use helping confirm connections between ancient plant management practices from before the arrival of Western settlers with cultural traditions of modern indigenous communities such as the Nez Perce. The researchers shared their work with members of the tribe who also used some of the seeds from the study to grow some of the pre-contact tobacco. The smoking of tobacco is a sacred tradition for Native American groups including the Nez Perce, Colville and other northwest Tribes and before now it was impossible to tell which kind of tobacco their ancestors smoked.
“We took over an entire greenhouse to grow these plants and collected millions of seeds so that the Nez Perce people could reintroduce these native plants back onto their land,” Brownstein said. “I think these kinds of projects are so important because they help build trust between us and tribal communities and show that we can work together to make discoveries.”
Non-tobacco plant identified in ancient pipe for first time By Will Ferguson, WSU News PULLMAN, Wash.—People in what is now Washington State were smoking Rhus glabra, a plant commonly known as
How to clean a pipe
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- What you’ll need
- Cleaning your pipe step-by-step
The pipe, a small, handheld device used to smoke cannabis, is one of the oldest and most common smoking methods in the world. Pipes remain popular cannabis smoking devices today, largely due to their availability, affordability, ease of use, and wide range of types, colors, and styles.
The pipe, a small, handheld device used to smoke cannabis, is one of the oldest and most common smoking methods in the world. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Part of using a pipe, bong, dab rig — or virtually any other smoking device — is knowing how to clean it. With frequent use, and without regular cleaning, pipes will build up residue that leads to clogging and affects smoke flavor negatively. For an optimal smoking experience, it’s important to clean your pipe regularly. Below is a step-by-step guide to cleaning and maintaining a pipe for optimal performance, smoke purity, and longevity of use.
What you’ll need
Before you begin cleaning your pipe, gather the following ingredients and materials:
- A sealable plastic bag
- Paper clip
- 99% Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
- Table salt (sodium chloride) or epsom salt (magnesium sulfate)
- Dish soap
Cleaning your pipe step-by-step
Now that you have what you need to adequately clean your pipe, follow the steps below:
Step 1: Place the pipe in a sealable plastic bag with alcohol
Carefully place the pipe in a sealable plastic bag and fill it with rubbing alcohol until the entire pipe is submerged. If you don’t have a baggie on hand, you can also use a small sealable container.
Carefully place the pipe in a sealable plastic bag and fill it with rubbing alcohol until the entire pipe is submerged. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Step 2: Add a teaspoon of salt
Add a teaspoon of table salt (sodium chloride) or Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate). Either will work. Salt will act as a scrubber or sponge on resin where an actual sponge or brush can’t reach. Work the salt into the pipe as much as possible to ensure it’s fully doing the work of deep cleaning.
Salt will act as a scrubber or sponge on resin where an actual sponge or brush can’t reach. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Coarse sea salt is typically used to clean bongs and other water pipes, but table or Epsom salt is usually enough to clean a pipe. If your pipe is particularly dirty or filled with old, hard resin, try using coarse salt.
Step 3: Let the pipe soak
Leave the pipe to soak in the bag or container for about 12 hours. This will give the alcohol enough time to thoroughly dissolve the resin.
Step 4: Shake the bag
Shake the bag vigorously to loosen residual resin. If you’re using a container, skip this step to avoid breaking your pipe.
Shake the bag vigorously to loosen residual resin. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps
Step 5: Remove the pipe from the bag and wash
After you’ve let your pipe soak for 12 hours and given it a good shake, remove your pipe from the bag and wash with hot water and dish soap. If you have any stubborn resin still clinging to your pipe, try removing it with a paperclip or pipe cleaners, but only if it won’t do damage to your pipe. You can also try using a pipe cleaner or cotton swab. After you’ve washed the pipe, give it a final rinse with just hot water.
Step 6: Let the pipe dry
Give your pipe ample time to sit and dry before you use it again. If your pipe isn’t totally clean before you begin drying, repeat the previous steps and make sure to add new salt, as the salt from the first round of cleaning will have been largely dissolved.
In both their material build and wide variety of unique designs, pipes are typically designed to last a long time. They also need regular maintenance to keep up their full function and deliver a clean, flavorful smoke.
How to clean a pipe Copy article link to clipboard. Link copied to clipboard. Contents What you’ll need Cleaning your pipe step-by-step The pipe, a small, handheld device