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The pipe was finished by passing it through a groove and rolling mill. Russell's method was not used long because in the next year, Comelius Whitehouse developed a better method for making metal tubes. This process, called the butt-weld process is the basis for our current pipe-making procedures. In his method, thin sheets of iron were heated and drawn through a cone-shaped opening. As the metal went through the opening, its edges curled up and created a pipe shape.

The two ends were welded together to finish the pipe. Gradually, improvements were made in the Whitehouse method. One of the most important innovations was introduced by John Moon in 1911. He suggested the continuous process method in which a manufacturing plant could produce pipe in an unending stream. He built machinery for this specific purpose and many pipe manufacturing facilities adopted it. While the welded tube processes were being developed, a need for seamless metal pipes arouse. Seamless pipes are those which do not have a welded seam. They were first made by drilling a hole through the center of a solid cylinder.

These types of pipes were perfect for bicycle frames because they have thin walls, are lightweight but are strong. In 1895, the first plant to produce seamless tubes was built. As bicycle manufacturing gave way to auto manufacturing, seamless tubes were still needed for gasoline and oil lines. This demand was made even greater as larger oil deposits were found. As early as 1840, ironworkers could already produce seamless tubes. In one method, a hole was drilled through a solid metal, round billet. The billet was then heated and drawn through a series of dies which elongated it to form a pipe. This method was inefficient because it was difficult to drill the hole in the center. This resulted in an uneven pipe with one side being thicker than the other. In this process the solid billed was cast around a fireproof brick core. When it was cooled, the brick was removed leaving a hole in the middle. Since then new roller techniques have replaced these methods. There are two types of steel pipe, one is seamless and another has a single welded seam along its length. Seamless tubes are typically more light weight, and have thinner walls. They are used for bicycles and transporting liquids. The have a better consistency and are typically straighter. They are used for things such as gas transportation, electrical conduit and plumbing. Typically, they are used in instances when the pipe is not put under a high degree of stress. Certain pipe characteristics can be controlled during production. For example, the diameter of the pipe is often modified depending how it will be used. The diameter can range from tiny pipes used to make hypodermic needles, to large pipes used to transport gas throughout a city. The wall thickness of the pipe can also be controlled. Often the type of steel will also have an impact on pipe's the strength and flexibility. Other controllable characteristics include length, coating material, and end finish.

The primary raw material in pipe production is steel. Other metals that may be present in the alloy include aluminum, manganese, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Some finishing materials are sometimes used during production. The overall production method for both processes involves three steps. First, raw steel is converted into a more workable form. Next, the pipe is formed on a continuous or semicontinuous production line. Finally, the pipe is cut and modified to meet the customer's needs. 1 Molten steel is made by melting iron ore and coke (a carbon-rich substance that results when coal is heated in the absence of air) in a furnace, then removing most of the carbon by blasting oxygen into the liquid. The molten steel is then poured into large, thick-walled iron molds, where it cools into ingots.

2 In order to form flat products such as plates and sheets, or long products such as bars and rods, ingots are shaped between large rollers under enormous pressure. 3 To produce a bloom, the ingot is passed through a pair of grooved steel rollers that are stacked.

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